Acne is a skin condition that occurs when oil and dead skin cells clog and block the openings of the hair follicles. This creates an environment of inflammation, activation of the immune system and bacterial proliferation that worsens the skin condition. When the clogged pore becomes infected they become blackheads or closed or open comedones. They usually appear on the face but can also appear on the neck, back, shoulders and chest.
It is usually common among teenagers but can affect people of all ages. Hormonal changes (adolescence, pregnancy and menopause) or the use of unsuitable cosmetic products may be the cause of acne outbreaks. Ongoing stress, an unhealthy diet or mechanical friction (in the case of ""maskne"") can worsen the problem.
A basic cosmetic routine for oily, acne-prone skin should include cleansing with a specific, non-irritating product; a moisturiser with sebum-regulating ingredients that is non-comedogenic; and oil-free sunscreen. This last step is essential to prevent hyperpigmented marks.
At night, we can apply cosmetics with more intensive renewing and comedolytic ingredients, such as alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids or retinoids, among others, depending on each particular case. In the event of outbreaks with abundant comedones, inflammation and discomfort, it is essential to see a dermatologist for the most appropriate treatment. Manipulation of the lesions should be avoided, as it only contributes to aggravating the condition.